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Role of Aldynoglia Cells in Neuroinflammatory and Neuroimmune Responses after Spinal Cord Injury
发表日期:2021-10-18


Aldynoglia 细胞在脊髓损伤后神经炎症和神经免疫反应中的作用

Role of Aldynoglia Cells in Neuroinflammatory and Neuroimmune Responses after Spinal Cord Injury



Aldynoglia are growth-promoting cells with a morphology similar to radial glia and share properties and markers with astrocytes and Schwann cells. They are distributed in several locations throughout the adult central nervous system, where the cells of the aldynoglia interact and respond to the signals of the immune cells. After spinal cord injury (SCI), the functions of resident aldynoglia, identified as ependymocytes, tanycytes, and ependymal stem cells (EpSCs) of the spinal cord are crucial for the regeneration of spinal neural tissue. These glial cells facilitate axonal regrowth and remyelination of injured axons. Here, we review the influence of M1 or M2 macrophage/microglia subpopulations on the fate of EpSCs during neuroinflammation and immune responses in the acute, subacute, and chronic phases after SCI.

醛固胶质细胞是一种生长促进细胞,其形态与径向胶质细胞相似星形胶质细胞和雪旺细胞的特性和标记。它们分布在好几个地方在整个成年中枢神经系统中,痛觉神经胶质细胞相互作用和反应免疫细胞的信号脊髓损伤(SCI)后,留置醛固酮的功能脊髓室管膜细胞、伸长细胞和室管膜干细胞(EpSCs)对脊髓神经组织的再生至关重要。这些胶质细胞促进轴突再生损伤轴突的再髓鞘化。本文综述了M1M2巨噬细胞/小胶质细胞的影响急性神经炎症和免疫反应中EpSCs命运的亚群脊髓损伤后的亚急性期和慢性期。

细胞培养瓶
细胞培养瓶

In the central nervous system (CNS), the activity of glial cells plays an essential role. They act like cellular support and constituting a source of growth factors in the CNS. After CNS injury, glial cells promote cell survival and neurogenesis in adults. Astroglial cells participate in the tripartite synapse as the third cellular component of pre- and postsynaptic neurons and act as a key regulator at the synapse . Oligodendroglial cells ensure synaptic transmission by enveloping axons and producing myelin . The function of aldynoglia, a glial cell subtype, promotes axonal growth, ensheathing, and myelination of neurons  and has been used in spinal cord injury models.

The close relationship between glial cells and neurons is of great importance for the functioning of CNS, both for myelination and the transmission of neurotransmitters, even if they come from a different progeny of precursor cells . Neurons and glial cells come from neuroectoderm, the precursors of glial cells will be found in both the ventricular and subventricular areas from where they migrate to more specific regions using neuron-like signals .

The highest percentage of glial cells in the brain are astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but there are other types of glial cells such as radial glia, Müller glia cells, Bergman glial cells, pituicytes, tanycytes, and olfactory ensheathing cells. In addition, in the spinal cord are the ependymal cells, tanycytes, and cells of the central canal; together they are called aldynoglia cells, which remain in adulthood.


装有培养基10层细胞工厂
装有培养基10层细胞工厂

在中枢神经系统中,胶质细胞的活动起着至关重要的作用。它们的作用类似于细胞支持,在中枢神经系统中构成生长因子的来源。后中枢神经系统损伤,胶质细胞促进细胞存活和神经发生在成人。Astroglial细胞参与三部突触,作为同步前和同步后顶突神经元的第三细胞成分,并在突触[1]起关键调节作用。确保Oligodendroglial细胞通过包络轴突和产生髓鞘[2]的突触传递。的功能Aldynoglia,一种胶质细胞亚型,促进轴突生长,鞘膜和髓鞘形成神经元[3]被用于脊髓损伤。胶质细胞与神经元之间的密切关系对神经细胞发育具有重要意义中枢神经系统的功能,包括髓鞘形成和神经递质的传递如果它们来自前体细胞的不同后代。神经元和胶质细胞出现从神经外胚层,神经胶质细胞的前体将在脑室和从脑室下区域通过神经元样转移到更具体的区域信号。大脑中胶质细胞比例最高的是星形胶质细胞和少突胶质细胞,但也有其他类型的胶质细胞,如径向胶质细胞,Müller胶质细胞,Bergman胶质细胞,垂体细胞,伸长细胞和嗅鞘细胞。此外,在脊髓中室管膜细胞、伸长细胞和中央管细胞;它们被称为Aldynoglia细胞,存在于成年期。


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